Dietary Modulation of the Gut Microbiome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide; nevertheless, its exact etiology is still unknown. Most of the CRC cases are sporadic (nearly 90%), and some genetic and environmental factors have been identified as potential risk factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk of CRC in developing countries include physical inactivity, smoking, unhealthy dietary habits (e.g., diets rich in processed and red meat, high fat diets, low intake of fiber), alcohol consumption, and obesity. Importantly, all these environmental factors are able to produce changes in the gut microbiota composition.

Emerging evidence has reported that CRC patients display significant alterations in specific bacterial groups with a potential impact on mucosal immune response with respect to healthy controls. These changes might produce enrichment in pro-inflammatory opportunistic pathogens and a decrease in butyrate-producing bacteria, which may lead to an imbalance in intestinal homeostasis (dysbiosis) that could ultimately lead to tumor formation. Thus, gut microbiota could be a key factor that contribute to both the initiation and development of CRC. In this project we aim to design nutritional interventions that reverse CRC-associated dysbiosis and reduce intestinal inflammation, and consequently minimize postoperative complications (e.g., anastomotic leaks and infections in the surgical site) and tumor recurrence in patients with CRC.

To know more about this study, please visit: clinicaltrials.gov | NCT04869956